减化从句,英语语法极速通过海关27

目录

形容词性从句的一大特色是,它的连接词与先行词意义重复,于是就有了轻便的后路。假如再将从句中的动词作者相应的拍卖,就能够将形容词性从句简化。

形容词性从句简化后的款式八种多样,常见的主要性有以下三种。

第二十二章 减化从句
第二十三章 关系从句减化

一、简化为分词

这种气象非常广泛,当提到代词是从句的主语,而从句又不包蕴语气助动词,那么就能够将从句简化为分词的格局。

第二十二章 减化从句

守旧语法动用了五光十色的名目来讲Bellamy(Bellamy)种概念,结果都不可能证实清楚。这么些名称包蕴
动状词(含未来分词、过去分词、动名词、动词不定词、原形动词)、非限定动词、非限定
从句、同位语、分词构句、独立词组等等。其实,全数那一个名称都能够用同二个价值观来驾驭:
减化从句(reduced clauses)

1.简化为未来分词

形容词性从句简化为明天分词,不外乎两种情景,要么从句是扩充时态,要么从句动词是经常动词。

就算从句是be+V-ing的实行时态,那么将be动词省略掉后,就改为了当今分词格局。

例如:

The girl who is dancing there is my sister.

其一句子中,形容词性从句的连接词who在从句中作主语,和它的事先词兼主句主语重复,所以能够省略掉。同一时间,从句的be动词未有实际意义,也能够直接省略。于是,形容词性从句就简化成了现行反革命分词的款型:

The girl dancing there is my sister.

设若从句的动词是普通动词,依据从前讲的从句简化平时法规,直接将平日性动词改成V-ing花样就能够。

例如:

The man who wants to see you is waiting outside.

其一句子中,形容词性从句的连接词who如故能够省略,然后将动词wants一贯改写成wanting,就能够将从句简化为当今分词方式:

The man wanting to see you is waiting outside.

再来看其他二个事例:

Anyone that has visited Paris once will want to return.

其一句子中,形容词性从句的连接词that能够省略掉,不必多说。关键是动词怎么管理?

那时的动词既不是实行时,亦不是平日形态,而是完成时。

实际上办法也很简短,我们几乎将不负职责时的助动词have/has/had用作是形似动词就可以,也正是说能够直接将have/has/had改成having

Anyone  having visited Paris once will want to return.

1. 叫作减化从句

减化从句的定义,其实就是一个「省略」的概念。句子从最主旨的单句步向相比较复杂的复合句时,前后多少个从句之间频繁会有再一次的因素存在。所谓减化从句,便是把从属从句个中全体重复的、空洞的成分压缩省略掉,只剩余最精简的构造.

  1. I avoid something.
    (笔者幸免一件事。)
  2. I am caught.
    (作者被逮到。)
  3. I am unprepared.
    (小编没做好筹算。)
    那多少个句子若分成八个单句来表述如上,很明显句型缺乏思新求变、风格缺乏成熟,何况表明力差
  4. I avoid [that I am caught] [when I am unprepared.]
    (远远不足简洁)
    呈报一件专门的学问时,保持内外句子的主语同样是个好习于旧贯,因为这么的描述比较有贯穿
    性、因而也就比较清楚。不过,主语的重新却又违反了简要的渴求。要想同临时间顾到清楚性以
    及简洁性、解决掉全部重复的成分,最棒的诀窍正是选取减化从句:压缩掉全部重复、空洞
    的要素,将句子减化如下:
  5. I avoid being caught unprepared.

2.简化为过去分词

形容词性从句借使是被动态,那么对其进行简化后,得到的正是过去分词方式。

例如:

Grapes that are grown in the Champagne area make the best wines.

此句中的形容词性从句为被动态,将连接词和be动词省略之后,就改成了过去分词方式:

Grapes grown in the Champagne area make the best wines.

再如:

A student who has been trained at this school is guaranteed to excel in
any exam.

此句中又冒出了成功时,何况是被动态的成功时。管理的点子有两种。

万一大家将has
been
作为是表述“完毕”的意义,那么就不可能将其简要,而应当改成今后分词情势:

A student having been trained at this school is guaranteed to excel in
any exam.

不过,因为过去分词除了能够表被动以外,也隐含“实现”的意义在内部。此时,has
been
就还是能作为无意义,如故能够被省略掉:

A student trained at this school is guaranteed to excel in any exam.

2. 附属从句减化的基本功观念

一.视 be
为动词,后边的某个蕴涵以往分词、过去分词、动词不定词、形容词、名词、介词词组等等一律视为主语补语。
二.今后分词视为形容词,字尾-ing 有「持续、举行」的授意。
三.过去分词视为形容词,字尾-en 有「被动、完结」的示意。
四.动词不定词具备不分明语气,和作品助动词的夹枪带棍同样。
五.语气助动词都足以改写为 be + to,意思差相当的少不改变。
从属从句的减化,就要创立在上述这几点观念上。

二、简化为形容词或名词

假诺形容词性从句是S+V+C句型,何况补语是形容词,那么主语和动词简化掉之后,从句就只剩余了形容词。

例如:

The boy, who is usually tall and heavy for his age, wants to be a
wrestler.

本条句子中,形容词性从句的主语whobe动词省略掉之后,剩下的就唯有作补语的形容词短语了:

The boy, usually tall and heavy for his age, wants to be a wrestler.

类似地,如果S+V+C句型的形容词性从句,其补语是名词,那么简化之后也就只剩下了名词。

例如:

The Great Wall of China, which is the largest man-made structure on
earth,no longer serves a military function.

此句中,形容词性从句的主语whichbe动词省略之后,剩下的片段独有原本作补语的名词短语:

The Great Wall of China,the largest man-made structure on earth,no
longer serves a military function.

中等的部分也正是我们常说的同位语,通过这几个事例,我们也亮堂了同位语的源流。

3. 从属从句减化的联合做法
  • 附属从句,不论是名词从句、表语从句、照旧状语从句,减化的条件都以毫发不爽的。全部的附属从句,共同的减化形式是省略掉主语与
    be 动词、只剩下补语部分来代表原本的子
    句。从属从句的主语如若和要害从句同样、恐怕是个空洞无意义的字,常常能够简轻巧单而不会
    影响到句子的野趣。若是从属从句的动词又是绝非描述技术的 be
    动词,那么省略掉 be 动词
    之后句子的意思依旧不会遭到杀害。附属从句简单掉主语与 be
    动词、把陈说的做事全盘交
    给补语来做,那就是减化从句的一块儿做法。未有了主语与范围动词,原来的限定从句也就产生了非限定从句,原本的连词也就不再供给。由此,除非为了保存连词的字意,不然这个连词也都得以一并省略。
  • 请当心:在富有的动词当中,唯有 be
    动词是空的、未有趣,能够减化掉而不加害到
    句子的意味。附属从句减化时,动词的管理格局能够依靠下列的原则开展:
  1. 若有 be 动词,省略 be 动词。
    若有口气助动词,将作品助动词减化为表示不定词的 to。
  2. 若无 be 动词也无可奈何气助动词、唯有普通动词,一律加上-ing。

三、简化为不定式

如上探究的前提皆以形容词性从句的接二连三词作者从句的主语,并且从句中不分包语气助动词。

反而,借使从句中包含语气助动词,那么就奥思索将其简化为不定式的花样,并且,那一年也不要供给连接词应当要作从句的主语。

例如:

This is not the right thing which you should do.

从句的连接词which在从句中作宾语,但是它和先行词重复,因而得以简轻松单;从句的主语you省略掉之后也不影响句意;最终,依据从句简化的相似法则,语气助动词均能够简化成不定式格局:

This is not the right thing to do.

再如:

I’m looking for a motorcycle that my wife can ride.

本条句子中,形容词性从句的连接词that能够省略掉,can ride能够改成to
ride
。不过从句的主语my wife却并未有轻便的后路,该怎么管理呢?

方法也十分不难,只需在从句主语前增加一个介词for即可:

I’m looking for a motorcycle for my wife to ride.

那正是说那样改了后头,也看不出哪儿简化了哟?

那就牵涉到从句简化的意思所在了。

从句简化的初衷,是为着扑灭掉句子中冗余的成份,使句子显得特别简约。

可是,随着从句简化越用越来越多,我们开采,还足以经过从句简化的条条框框造出形式丰盛的的句子,使小说显得愈发涉笔成趣,不那么愚拙。

实际道理很简单,再美好的一个句型,也不能通篇都用它。一篇小说能有贰个理想的句子,固然是很成功的了。

于是,纵然不时从句简化并不可见实现精简句子的目标,大家也依然要尝尝一下,说不定就能够获取差异等的效用。

3.1 省略 be 动词

[While he was taking a bath], Archimedes discovered the principle of
buoyancy.
(当她在泡澡的时候,阿基米得发现了浮力原理。)
While taking a bath, Archimedes discovered the principle of buoyancy.

3.2 语气助动词改写为表示不定词的 to

I expect [that I can finish the book on the way].
(作者预想能够在途中看完那本书。)
I expect [to finish the book on the way].

3.3 普通动词加-ing

The runner [who finished second] won a small prize.
The runner [finishing second] won a small prize. (who finished
second → who was finishing second→ finishing second)

4 连词的管理

附属从句减化之后,因为不再有限制从句了,所以也就不再供给有连词。由此,无意义的连词如名词从句外加的
that、以及重复的连词如关系词,在减化从句中都不会留下来。至于疑问句改写而来的名词从句,减化之后原本的疑问词是有意义的连词,会保留下在减化从句中。还可能有便是状语从句外加的连词都有意义,在状语从句减化之后要是有亟待,能够挑选把连词留下来以保存字意。反之,尽管意思够清楚,状语从句原本的连词在减化从句中也能够省略。

第二十三章 关系从句减化

  • 事关从句的减化,平日都以因为涉及代词刚好正是关乎从句的主语,因为和先
    行词重复而发出了足以减化的上空。只要省略掉关系从句中这些重复的主语以及抽象的
    be 动词、留下补语,正是独立的涉及从句减化。
1 减化为分词

关系从句最普及的减化情状正是减化为后天分词词组或过去分词词组。这种情景,关系从句的主语应该便是事关代词,与先行词重复。关系从句的动词借使是相似语法所谓的实行式(be

  • Ving),省略掉 be
    动词之后就能够剩下今后分词。要是动词是形似语法所谓的被动态(be +
    Ven),省略掉 be
    动词之后剩下的就是过去分词。如若提到从句的动词是平时动词,则要求加上-ing
    进行词类变化、形成现在分词。
1.1 以往分词

The man [who wants to see you] is waiting outside.
The man [wanting to see you] is waiting outside.

My Encyclopedia Britannica, [which is lying on the bookshelf and
gathering dust], has seldom been used.
(笔者那套大英百科全书,摆在书架上积灰尘,没用过一遍。)
My Encyclopedia Britannica, [lying on the bookshelf and gathering
dust], has seldom been used.

  • 即便涉嫌从句中的动词是到位时(have + Ven),减化的做法照旧加-ing
    做词类变化, 成为 having + Ven 这种形象的后天分词词组而保留下来

Anyone [that has visited Bali once] will want to return.
Anyone [having visited Bali once] will want to return.

1.2 过去分词

Grapes [that are grown in the Champagne area] make the best wines.
Grapes [grown in the Champagne area] make the best wines.

Microsoft, [which is accused of monopolizing the OS market], will
have to change its business practices.
(微软公司(它被指控操纵操作系统市镇)必得改造它的小买卖作风。)
Microsoft, [accused of monopolizing the OS market], will have to
change its business practices.

  • 假如涉嫌从句中的动词是 be 动词的完毕时 have
    been,前面用过去分词当作被动语态的 补语,那么减化从句有三种做法

A student [who has been trained at this school] is guaranteed to
excel in any exam.
(经过那个学园磨炼出来的学生保障别的考试都会显现理想。)
A student [having been trained at this school] is guaranteed to
excel in any exam.
A student [trained at this school] is guaranteed to excel in any
exam.
过去分词(如 trained)本人就具有「完成情况」的授意。过去分词 trained
除了「被练习」的被动语态,也保有「已经演练过」的到位情况在内。而
having been 中间 的 be 动词未有意义,整个以往分词词组 having been
只可以够发挥实现景况。既然后边的寿终正寝 分词已经能够抒发实现景况,那么
having been 正是可有可无了。

2 减化为复合形容词

形容词唯有二种关键的地方:名词词组中以及补语位置。关系从句的岗位日常是坐落先行词的前边来修饰它。有一种减化的艺术是把事关从句减化为多少个复合形容词,然后放进名
词词组中的形容词地方。这种复合形容词,经常是此前天分词或过去分词的形态出现,以下
分别介绍。

2.1 复合未来分词

“Big John” is a machine.
The machine drills tunnels.
“Big John” is a machine that drills tunnels.
“Big John” is a tunnel-drilling machine.

That magazine is for women. (那本杂志是妇女杂志。)
That magazine looks beautiful. (那本笔记看起来很美丽观。)
That magazine which looks beautiful is for women.
That beautiful-looking magazine is for women.

I’m enjoying the sunset.
The sunset is vanishing fast.
I’m enjoying the sunset, which is vanishing fast.
I’m enjoying the fast-vanishing sunset.

2.2 复合过去分词

涉嫌从句减化为复合形容词,即便原先是被动语态,往往会化为复合过去分词的形象

I love these high peaks.
These high peaks are covered with snow.
I love these high peaks, [which are covered with snow].
I love these high, snow-covered peaks.

These apples are beginning to rot.
These apples were bitten by frost.
These apples, [which were bitten by frost], are beginning to rot.
These frost-bitten apples are beginning to rot.

2.3 减化为形容词

假使提到从句是 S + V + C
的句型,主语补语是形容词,那么减化进程中省略掉主语和 be
动词之后,剩下的正是单纯的形容词补语

A chimpanzee is an animal [that is capable of
reason].(红毛猩猩是一种具有理性手艺的动物。)
A chimpanzee is an animal [capable of reason].

The boy, [who is usually tall and heavy for his age], wants to be a
sumo wrestler.
The boy, [usually tall and heavy for his age], wants to be a sumo
wrestler.
那个减化关系从句前后打一对逗点隔开分离,因为它是不具提醒成效的增加补充表明。

2.4 减化为名词

纵然涉及从句是 S + V + C
的句型,而主语补语是个名词词组,那么在减化进程中省略掉主语与 be
动词之后,剩下的一些正是充裕名词词组。那一个名词词组是原先的主语补语,
也正是价值观语法所谓的同位语

The Great Wall of China, [which is the largest man-made structure on
earth], no longer serves a military function.
The Great Wall of China, [the largest man-made structure on earth],
no longer serves a military function.

This movie features Tom Hanks, [who is my favorite movie star].
This movie features Tom Hanks, [my favorite movie star].

2.5 减化为不定词
  • 本章至此整理的情事都有三个共同点:都是用关系代词当提到从句的主语,在进展减化时将以此与先行词重复的主语省略掉。然而,关系从句假若是减化为动词不定词,那么关
    系从句的主语能够有相当的大的弹性:不必然是涉及代词当主语,而是只要够清楚就足以减
    化。而且也不确定都是用关系代词当关系词,关系副词也许有十分大概率。
  • 事关从句要想减化为动词不定词,有一个先决条件:动词词组必须带有语气助动词在内。只要有小说助动词,能够先把文章助动词改写为
    be + to,然后在开展减化时依旧是把 be 动词省掉,剩下的正是动词不定词

This is not the right thing [which you should do].
关联从句中的关系代词 which 不再扮演主语的剧中人物,而是动词 should do
的宾语。因 为涉及代词是宾语,能够优先省略,剩下 you should
do,再来进行减化:主语 you 省掉的 话句意依旧通晓,动词部分有言外之意助动词
should,减化的结果就是成为表示不定词的 to
This is not the right thing [to do].

If you want a loan, our manager is the person [whom you should
see].
If you want a loan, our manager is the person [to see].
相比轻巧的思想是把 to see 直接正是动词词组 should see
的词类变化对待:将限制动词 should see 形成动词不定词 to
see,能够当形容词使用、修饰 the person

If you like Cantonese food, I know just the place [where you can
go].
If you like Cantonese food, I know just the place [to go].

This is no time [when you should be fooling around].
This is no time [to be fooling around].

I’ll show you the way [how you can start this machine].
I’ll show you the way [to start this machine].

I’m glad because I have something [that I can look forward to].
I’m glad because I have something [to look forward to].

2.6 动词不定词的语态

关系从句减化为动词不定词,要小心的是主动或被动语态的决断

  1. There’s still one more person to notify.
  2. There’s still one more person to be notified.
  3. There’s still one more person [whom we must notify].
  4. There’s still one more person [who must be notified].
2.7 主动与被动孰优孰劣

如前所述,动词不定词不时候采主动与丧气皆可。可是,该用主动或然该用被动,其间
有优劣之分,那是意大利语作文时应有要会剖断的事。传统语法因为只看见词组的层系,对于这一点一直未有能够讲驾驭。必需将动词不定词还原到从句的层系,本领够知其所以然。

  • 连贯性原则
    印度语印尼语修辞有两大意求:清楚与轻巧。清楚性的供给能够表今后繁多地方,富含连贯性的
    原则。举例:前后几个句子、或左右多少个从句,假诺主语同样、叙事的理念连贯,会是比较清楚的陈说。何况,主语相同期会相比较便于开展减化,所以句子又能够变得更简明、进一步
    提升句子的修辞价值。

When John stepped into his office, the boss was seen waiting there by
him.
(前后八个从句的主语分歧,形成叙事不连贯,修辞效果非常糟糕)
When John stepped into his office, he saw the boss waiting there.
Stepping into his office, John saw the boss waiting there.
(进一步简化)

When John stepped out of his office, a car hit him.
When 约翰 stepped out of his office, he was hit by a car.(继续简化)
Stepping out of his office, John was hit by a car.

  • 以连贯性原则决断动词不定词的语态
    动词不定词中只即使运用主动语态和被动语态都足以的状态,那么该用哪贰个相比较好?
    那几个难题应有把动词不定词还原为限定从句、並且动用连贯性原则来推断
  1. I must stay at the office.
  2. I have some people.
  3. I must notify them.
  4. I must stay at the office [because I have some people] whom I
    must notify.
  5. I must stay at the office because I have some people to notify.

  6. The news can’t be released yet.

  7. There are some people.
  8. These people must be notified first.
  9. The news can’t be released yet [because there are some people]
    who must be notified first.
  10. The news can’t be released yet [because there are some people]
    to be notified first.
    (那则音信还不可能公布,因为还某一个人总得先行知会。)
  • 动词不定词的主语怎么样交代
    如前所述,关系从句借使减化为动词不定词,它的主语不确定是关系代词、所以也不
    一定和第一从句有双重。假使这些主语并不重复、亦非暧昧的字眼,属于需求交代之列,
    那么涉及从句减化为动词不定词时,原本的主语平日是安顿在介词 for
    前边的地点来拍卖。

I’m looking for a motorcycle [that my wife can ride].
关系从句中的关系代词 that(相当于which)是宾语,因为未有逗点和先行词隔开分离所 以能够先行省略,剩下 my wife
can ride 再来举办减化:主语 my wife 和要紧从句之间并无重 复,并且 my
wife 并不是像 people, somebody
之类含糊笼统的字,所以不可能大致。碰着这种 处境,助动词 can
如故减化为表示不定词的 to,而卓殊动词不定词,原本的主语应该投身介 系词
for 前边的宾语地点来交代
I’m looking for a motorcycle [for my wife to ride].

3 连词的拍卖
  • 涉嫌从句减化之后,原 本的连词(即关系词)都留不下来。
  • 波及从句原来是限量从句,须要有个连词,而关系词就扮演连词的剧中人物。关系从句经过减化之后,不再有主语与限定动词了,由此也就不再要求连词。关系从句的减化,日常都以因为涉嫌代词正是关系从句的主语、与第一从句的先行词重复,因此能够简单。那
    么在做减化从句的时候因为要简明主语,关系词自然就能够被省略掉

Do you know the girl [who is sitting next to John]?
Do you know the girl [sitting next to John]?